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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jandarma Istihbarat ve Terorle Mucadele or Jandarma Istihbarat Teskilat? (abbr. JITEM or JIT, in English: Gendarmerie Intelligence and Fight against Terrorism or English: Gendarmerie Intelligence Organization) is a controversial wing of the Turkish Gendarmerie. It is claimed that JITEM was active in the Turkey-PKK conflict. After the Susurluk scandal, former prime ministers Bulent Ecevit, and Mesut Y?lmaz have confirmed the existence of JITEM.
According to Murat Belge of Istanbul Bilgi University, who says he was tortured in 1971 by its founder, Veli Kucuk, JITEM is an embodiment of the deep state. In other words, it is used by “the Establishment” to enforce alleged national interests. It is also said to be the military wing of Ergenekon, an underground nationalist organization. In 2008 long-maintained official denials of JITEM’s existence started collapsing in the courts, as ex-members of Turkey’s “deep state” security apparatus testify to their participation in covert and illegal activities over the last few decades as part of the ongoing “Ergenekon” investigation.
JITEM was subjected to parliamentary scrutiny during the Susurluk scandal, when commanders in the Gendarmerie repeatedly denied the existence of an overarching intelligence organization within the Gendarmerie. Susurluk commission member Fikri Saglar said that the commanders denied its existence because the Gendarmerie formally acquired the legal capacity to conduct intelligence operations in 2005 (with Law 5397). The author of the Prime Ministry Inspection Board report, Kutlu Savas, said JITEM was created on Gendarmerie Commander Hulusi Say?n’s watch (1981–1985). The Parliamentary Investigation Committee’s report on Unsolved Political Murders in Various Regions of Our Country (10/90) dated 12 October 1995 and the summary by Istanbul National Security Court General Prosecutor dated 30 January 1997 are also worthy of consideration.
Findings about JITEM and Ersever were also published by researchers and journalists. One of the first and most detailed of these was by Soner Yalc?n. Yalc?n managed to interview Ersever, subsequently publishing the interviews in his book Binbas? Ersever’in Itiraflar? (Confessions of Major Ersever. Seven months after the release of the Susurluk Report, a book entitled: Cem Ersever ve JITEM Gercegi (Cem Ersever and the JITEM Fact), written by journalist Cetin Agase, a friend of the Ersever family, was published. The appendix of the book contains documents such as the 1994 phone directory of the General Command of Gendarmerie, which contained the numbers of the JITEM Group Commander and JITEM units in each city. This was further proof of JITEM’s official existence and of Ersever’s position within the chain of command.
The first person to write about JITEM was journalist Ayse Onal for Ates magazine on 2 July 1994. Onal had learned about it from Veli Kucuk after being introduced to him through MIT spy and fellow journalist, Tuncay Guney. Onal and Kucuk’s meeting did not go well, and Onal vowed to write about it. She followed through, and was promptly fired, along with nineteen of her coworkers.
Revelations have recently come from an informant named Abdulkadir Aygan (a former PKK member recruited by JITEM, now a political refugee in Sweden) that it was founded by retired general Veli Kucuk, who is currently arrested in the Ergenekon investigations. Other people allegedly involved in its founding are Ahmet Cem Ersever, Arif Dogan, Hasan Kundakc?, Huseyin Kara, Hulusi Say?n and Aytekin Ozen, according to Aygan. Kucuk confirmed Aygan’s allegations about his cofounding the organization.
After being taken into custody, Arif Dogan admitted to being a founder of the organization, originally known as the Intelligence Group Command (Turkish: Istihbarat Grup Komutanl?g?), and that in 1990 he handed the reins to Veli Kucuk. In 2005 he had denied the very existence of such an organization. After his release from prison Arif Dogan spoke to journalists of the news channel Haber Turk in September 2010 and said that he alone had founded JITEM and had “frozen” it in 1990. Concerning the structure of JITEM Colonel Arif Dogan said: “My staff was 10,000, including 620 women. They participated in operations and got 3,000 Lira for each head.”
According to figures of the Justice Ministry about 1,950 PKK militants became confessors after arrest. Unofficial figures put the number of confessors that were used and paid in the fight against the PKK at 500.
It has repeatedly been claimed that JITEM was dissolved. One of the first was Prime Minister Mesut Y?lmaz. He stated on 22 January 1998 on the Arena program on Kanal D hosted by Ugur Dundar that JITEM did not exist any longer. When Ismail Hakk? Karaday? assumed the role of chief of general staff, (30 August 1994 – 30 August 1998), news stating the dissolution of JITEM were leaked to the press. The last declaration about JITEM’s dissolution came from the former Commander of the Gendarmerie in the State of Emergency Region (Olaganustu Hal, OHAL), retired Lieutenant- General Altay Tokat. Tokat stated in his interview with the newspaper Zaman that JITEM was a “public disclosure of an intelligence unit that fought against the PKK in the OHAL region” and that it had “fulfilled its role and was dissolved”.
The former chair of Diyarbak?r Bar Association, Sezgin Tanr?kulu, however claims that JITEM was not dissolved, but the cadres were not active at the moment.
JITEM was made a legal entity through Article 5 of the Law 2803 on the Establishment, Duties and Jurisdiction of Gendarmerie and Article 4 of the Law Concerning the Transfer of Our Borders, Coasts and Territorial Waters’ Protection and Anti-Smuggling Activities to the Ministry of Internal Affairs No. 6815.
The gendarmerie intelligence, previously known as JITEM or JIT, finally gained legal status with the Law Concerning Amendments to Some Laws No. 5397, accepted on 03 July 2005, effective since 23 July 2005 thus becoming the Gendarmerie Intelligence Department within the General Command of Gendarmerie. This law authorised the gendarmerie to carry out technical stakeouts.
Among the alleged members are ex-PKK-operatives (Turkish: Itirafc?), besides non-commissioned officers and a few officers of the Gendarmerie. While Aygan listed several units as part of JITEM such as  the Gendarmerie General Command, the Intelligence Command, the Joint Group Command, the Regional Group Commands (of which there are seven), the Team Commands and small clandestine cells the lawyer Tahir Elci, who is acting on behalf of victims of JITEM said:
“It is not possible to completely know the organizational structure of JITEM; but it is understood that it was organized within the Gendarmerie, the centre being in Ankara and having group commands mostly in the South-East within the Regimental Commands of the provinces. They took their orders from the centre in Ankara and conducted three folded activities: gather intelligence, interrogate and carry out operations.”
JITEM carried out its activities using the “staff system” (eleman sistemi) and technical stakeout approaches. The information gathered was analysed, became intelligence and submitted to the Intelligence Group Command. Every report was assembled by the Intelligence Group Command and operation teams were dispatched accordingly.
JITEM was founded to counter the guerilla tactics of the PKK, but its units never directly clashed with armed groups of the PKK in the rural areas. They made use of informers to kill PKK adherents, raid villages in guerilla dressing, detain, torture or make people “disappear”. Intelligence units did not have the necessary mechanisms in place to fight the PKK in open country. The inefficiency in the intelligence network made it impossible for land forces to perform specific operations, to prevent terror raids and to develop a strategy against PKK front activities.
The spokesperson of the Movement of Kurdish Democrats Ahmet Acar alleged that JITEM fomented infighting in the PKK, while ensuring the perpetuation of both of the PKK, and by extension, itself. Kurdish-Turkish politician Abdulmelik F?rat maintained that JITEM is connected to the PKK, while fighting it at the same time.
Numerous people who claim to be or are purported to be JITEM operatives have been accused of crimes such as kidnapping, intimidation, and extra-judicial killings of PKK members. Former JITEM operative Aygan estimated that 80% of these killings were done by JITEM. JITEM interrogators are especially brutal since they belong to an organization that ostensibly does not exist, and hence they are not accountable. Aygan says that detainees are invariably killed. He provided about 30 names of victims.
Tuncay Guney, a former spy for the National Intelligence Organization who infiltrated JITEM, alleged that Veli Kucuk’s men, working for JITEM, killed people using acid and buried the corpses in wells belonging to the state-owned Turkish Pipeline Corporation, BOTAS. Some have responded to the S?rnak Bar’s request for witnesses and families of victims to step forward. Ergenekon defendant Levent Ersoz has also been named in connection with the incidents, in Silopi.
There are no clear figures on the number of political killings in South-East Anatolia. According to intelligence units, 1550 unsolved murders were committed between 1990-2000 although the PKK claims that the accurate number exceeds 2000. The Human Rights Association estimates that between 1989 and 2008 JITEM was involved in 5000 unsolved killings of journalists, human rights defenders, intellectuals and political activists and was responsible for 1,500 cases of “disappearances”. Former chair of Diyarbak?r Bar Association Sezgin Tanr?kulu put the figures above 4,000, close to 5,000. He stated that one JITEM operative, Ibrahim Babat, alone had been charged with 61 killings. In a documentary of Mehmet Hatman the figure of 4653 unsolved political killings between 1991 and 2000 was mentioned.
Some murders received a lot of press coverage. One of it was the killing of Gaffar Okan, Diyarbakir Chief of Police and five police officers on 24 January 2001. Aygan said that only official organizations such as JITEM are capable of doing this. Further cases are:
Vedat Ayd?n, the Diyarbak?r branch chairman of the now-defunct People’s Labor Party (HEP), was found dead on a road near Malatya on 7 July 1991, two days after armed men had taken him from his home in Diyarbakir. The widow Sukran Ayd?n thinks her husband’s murder was a turning point and that there was a sudden increase in the number of unsolved murders in the country’s Southeast following his death. She believes that a clandestine unit within the gendarmerie was responsible for the murder.  Only 18 years after the killing the public prosecutor in Diyarbakir opened a file seeking the detention of nine JITEM members including the Major Aytekin Ozen.
Aygan said he had been part of a unit, alongside Cem Ersever and Arif Dogan, which had assassinated 72-year-old Kurdish writer Musa Anter in 1992 in Diyarbakir. Turkey was found guilty of this murder in 2006 by the ECHR, who sentenced Turkey to a fine of 28,500 euros.
Former JITEM commander Cem Ersever was assassinated in November 1993. Aygan alleges that Arif Dogan and Veli Kucuk’s superiors in Ankara ordered the assassination in order to take control of JITEM from Ersever.
JITEM’s chief, Arif Dogan, was tried in the frame of the Yuksekova Gang (aka “the gang with uniforms”). According to Today’s Zaman, the “Yuksekova Gang was an illegal organization formed in the Yuksekova district of Hakkari, headed by three high-ranking military personnel and various politicians that smuggled drugs and weapons.” Its activities were first revealed in 1996, in the aftermath of the Susurluk scandal. Its activities “are only one part of the JITEM activities” that have been sent to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). All of the local court prison sentences concerning the Yuksekova Gang were cancelled by the High Court of Appeals of Turkey, leading the ECHR to fine Turkey 103,000 Euro for its decisions about the Yuksekova Gang.
Relying on a document as an attachment to the indictment in the Ergenekon case F?rat News Agency presented background on smuggling of JITEM staff between 1981 and 1990. Details were mentioned on arms trafficking, drug smuggling, and cross border trafficking of electronic devices.
Ilhan Cihaner, prosecutor in Idil (S?rnak province) was the first to point at JITEM in an indictment of 1997. He held the defendants including civil servants, confessors and others responsible for killings, bombings and “disappearances”. Defendant No. 1 was Ahmet Cem Ersever and defendant No. 2 was Arif Dogan.
An indictment prepared by Diyarbak?r Public Prosecutor Mithat Ozcan dated 29 March 2005 charged eight PKK confessors, namely Mahmut Y?ld?r?m (aka Yesil), Abdulkadir Aygan, Muhsin Gul, Fethi Cetin, Kemal Emluk, Saniye Emluk, Yuksel Ugur and Abdulkerim K?rca. These people were suspected of being JITEM members and were charged with eight unsolved murders, namely the murders of Harbi Arman, Lokman Zugurli, Zana Zugurli, Servet Aslan, Sahabettin Latifeci, Ahmet Ceylan, Mehmet S?dd?k Etyemez and Abdulkadir Celikbilek between the years 1992-1994. The case was transferred to a military court. The court case went through different stages. In September 2010 the number of defendants had risen to 15. During the hearing at Diyarbakir Heavy Penal Court No. 6 of 3 September 2010 the defendants Ali Ozansoy and Adil Timurtas (both confessors) were present for the first time. Earlier the Ministry of Interior had refused to inform the Court of the new names of the defendants.
Mehmet Serif Avsar was abducted in Diyarbakir on 22 April 1994 and two weeks later found dead. The kidnappers, PKK confessor Mesut Mehmetoglu and village guards hid in a building reportedly belonging to JITEM. On 20 March 2001 six defendants were convicted for their involvement in the killing. The case was raised with the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). The court found a violation of Article 2 of the European Convention of Human Rights.
Abdulkadir Aygan is one of the 11 or 12 defendants charged with having killed Hac? Ahmet Zeyrek (in Silopi 1989), JITEM staff member Mehmet Bayar (25 June 1990) and Tahsin Sevim, Hasan Utanc and Hasan Caner on 16 September 1989. A criminal court in Diyarbak?r ruled in 2006 that the defendants were military personnel and should be tried in a military court.
According to the report of Kutlu Savas PKK confessor Hayrettin Toka had been involved in many killings of JITEM. He was apprehended in Karamursel in December 2005 and taken to Diyarbakir. A judge released him on 16 January 2006. In his testimony Toka stated that he had been imprisoned for 12.5 years.
On 11 September 2009 Diyarbak?r Heavy Penal Court No. 6 started to hear the case of 7 defendants charged with 20 killings that had been committed between 1993 and 1995 when Colonel Cemil Temizoz had been the commander of Cizre Gendarmerie Station in S?rnak province, Cizre district. On 17 September 2010 the 18th hearing was held.^ Ayik, Zeki (1997-01-17). “PKK confessors turn into state hitmen”. Turkish Daily News. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. http://tdnarchives.blogspot.com/1997/01/pkk-confessors-turn-into-state-hitmen.html. ^ 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, “SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-Guerrilla Affairs”, p.39-86 (see quotation on p.40): “It seems that some illegal methods were employed within the state during the anti-terrorist struggle. In the report, some military people are mentioned, but the report implies that the army as a whole was not involved in such affairs. I am glad to hear that. If the army had been involved in such affairs, it would have been highly difficult for us to solve the problem. On the other hand, the situation of the Gendarmerie is a bit complex because its affiliation is to both the army and the Ministry of Interior Affairs. That’s an outcome of the report. JITEM seems corrupted.”^ 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, “SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-guerilla Affairs”, p.46: The report prepared by Prime Ministry Inspection Board Deputy Chairman Kutlu Savas mentioned JITEM as involved in gang activities. However, JITEM is among the “state secrets” of Prime Minister Mesut Y?lmaz. Y?lmaz accepted the existence of JITEM but argued that “military officials were not involved and they intervened when they learned about it.” Y?lmaz carefully tried to relieve military officials, the Gendarmerie’s former Commander General Teoman Koman from responsibility. Deputy Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit said, “JITEM is mentioned in the report. However, the Gendarmerie and JITEM are not equal to the army.”^ Usul, Safile (2008-09-08). “‘Veli Kucuk bana iskence yapt?’” (in Turkish). Gazeteport. http://www.gazeteport.com.tr/GUNCEL/NEWS/GP_280409. Retrieved 2008-12-05. ^ Duzel, Nese (2008-01-28). “2009’da k?yamet gibi kan akacakt?” (in Turkish). Taraf. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber.asp?id=1177. Retrieved 2008-08-14. “Derin devlet gene askeri bunye icinde olusuyor ama art?k derin devlet MIT degil. Bugun derin devlet JITEM.” ^ “Assassinations lead to JITEM”. Sabah. 2008-08-25. http://english.sabah.com.tr/169DC79975FD4447B0B37835E0550F59.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26. “JITEM, considered to be the ancestor of the Ergenekon organization….” [dead link]^ a b Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-04). “JITEM Ergenekon’un askeri kanad?d?r” (in Turkish). Evrensel. http://www.evrensel.net/haber.php?haber_id=38255. Retrieved 2008-10-21. ^ Jamestown Foundation [tt_news=34177 Turkey’s Gendarmerie: Reforming a Frontline Unit in the War on Terrorism], Publication: Terrorism Monitor Volume: 6 Issue: 22, November 25, 2008 by Andrew McGregor^ a b “JITEM vard?r!” (in Turkish). Milliyet. 2006-02-16. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2006/02/16/guncel/gun01.html. Retrieved 2008-07-25. “Jandarma Genel Komutan? Teoman Koman: ‘Jandarma teskilat? icinde JITEM ad?nda legal ya da illegal bir orgut kurulmam?st?r, yoktur. Ama jandarma d?s?nda bu ismi kullan?p kanunsuz isler yapan bir grup vard?r’.” ^ Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). “Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok JITEM” (in Turkish). Hurriyet. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/pazar/3542856.asp?gid=59. Retrieved 2008-09-05. “Ayn? donemde Genelkurmay Baskan? Dogan Gures, Jandarma Genel Komutan? Teoman Koman basta olmak uzere bircok yetkili ‘JITEM ad?nda bir orgut hic olmad?’ deyip kamuoyunun ruhuna serin su serpmisti.” ^ Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). “Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok: JITEM” (in Turkish). Hurriyet. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/pazar/3542856.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-25. ^ Saglar, Fikri (2008-12-22). “Ergenekon’da kara gorundu mu?” (in Turkish). Star. http://www.stargazete.com/acikgorus/ergenekon-da-kara-gorundu-mu-156696.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-27. “JITEM yasal bir kurulus olmad?g? icin ‘yok’ demek zorundalar. Aksini soylerlerse hepsi birden suclu olurlar.” ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n The article INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES OF THE GENDARMERIE CORPS (JITEM & JIT) by Ertan Bese, Assistant Professor, Police Academy, Faculty of Security Sciences can be found in the ALMANAC TURKEY 2005: SECURITY SECTOR AND DEMOCRATIC OVERSIGHT (DCAF) – TESEV (Turkish Economic an Social Studies Foundation) SERIES IN SECURITY SECTOR STUDIES, ALMANAC TURKEY 2005, ISBN: 975-8112-79-1 Link to the pdf-file pages 172-189^ Onal, Ayse (2008-07-24). “Veli Kucuk beni isten kovdurttu” (in Turkish). Yeni Safak. http://yenisafak.com.tr/Gundem/?t=24.07.2008&c=1&i=130671. Retrieved 2008-11-21. ^ Unlu, Ferhat (2008-08-25). “Hem PKK’n?n hem de JITEM’in itirafc?s? Aygan” (in Turkish). Sabah. http://www.sabah.com.tr/2008/08/25/haber,9CF3200315EB4BD5AD6E9FA2AAE87B4B.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. “Ben hem PKK’n?n hem de JITEM’in itirafc?s?y?m. Ama hain degilim, kendimi hain hissetmiyorum. Cunku hainlerin yapt?klar?n? ac?klad?m.” [dead link]^ Okkan assassination linked to JITEM, Today’s Zaman, 27 August 2008^ “Cem Ersever’in kay?p arsivi Veli Kucuk’un evinden c?kt? iddias?” (in Turkish). Zaman. 2008-01-31. http://www.zaman.com.tr/haber.do?haberno=645648. Retrieved 2008-08-19. “Ben JITEM’in kurucusu olarak biliniyorum. Kanunda yeri olan bir birimdir. Bu bende bir meslek hastal?g? olarak niteleyebilecegim arsivleme al?skanl?g?ndan dolay? bana gorev s?ras?nda degisik yerlerden ulasan belgeleri dosyalayarak muhafaza ettim. Emekli olduktan sonra da bu sekilde gelen belgeleri arsivledim. Beni seven insanlar da bu tur bilgi ve belge ak?s?n? bana saglarlar. Evimde bulunan gizlilik niteligi yuksek olan belgeleri arsivlemem, karakterimin ve al?skanl?g?m?n bir yans?mas?d?r. Ayn? zamanda yaz?ya dokulen gizli konusma kay?tlar? da bunun icinde yer al?yor. Evimde, gundemdeki Ergenekon, Lobi gibi belgelerin orijinal nushalar?n?n c?kmas? da arsivleme hastal?g?mdan kaynaklanmaktad?r.” ^ Inci, Fatih (2008-08-19). “JITEM’ci Albay’dan uyusturucu servisi!” (in Turkish). Yeni Safak. http://yenisafak.com.tr/Gundem/?i=135387. Retrieved 2008-08-19. “Kardesim ben JITEM’in kurucusuyum. Bana graml?k uyusturucunun hesab?n? soruyorsunuz. Bunlar? gorev icab? ihtayac? olanlara veriyorum. Si….m uyusturucusunu.” ^ Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-16). “Emekli Albay Dogan: JITEM’in uygulac?s?yd?m” (in Turkish). Milliyet. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Siyaset/HaberDetay.aspx?aType=HaberDetay&Kategori=siyaset&ArticleID=979078&Date=16.08.2008&b=%27J%C4%B0TEM%E2%80%99in%20uygulac%C4%B1s%C4%B1yd%C4%B1m%27. Retrieved 2008-08-19. “Ergenekon’la alakam yoktur. Ergenekon’u sorusturma asamas?nda duydum. 21 y?l daglarda gorev yapt?m. JITEM’in de daglarda uygulay?c?s?yd?m.” ^ a b Duvakli, Melik (2008-01-30). “JITEM hitman: Veli Kucuk conceals masterminds”. Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=132811. Retrieved 2008-08-11. ^ Sardan, Tolga; Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-21). “JITEM’i ben kurdum, Veli Kucuk’e devrettim” (in Turkish). Milliyet. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Siyaset/HaberDetay.aspx?aType=HaberDetay&ArticleID=980869&Kategori=siyaset&Date=21.08.2008&b=J%DDTEM%92i%20ben%20kurdum,%20Veli%20K%FC%E7%FCk%92e%20devrettim&ver=13. Retrieved 2008-08-21. “1990’da Jandarma Istihbarat Grup Komutanl?g? gorevimi kendisine devrettim. Bu s?rada yarbay olarak gorev yap?yordum. Gorev alan?m?z Turkiye geneliydi. Kucuk ise albayd?.” ^ see the daily Hurriyet of 20 November 2005)^ Arif Dogan was detained in August 2008 (see Weekly report of the HRFT and released because of illness 11 months later (see the daily Zaman of 30 July 2009)^ a b The article appeared in Haber Turk on 26 September 2010; accessed on 27 September 2010^ a b See the article in Haber Vitrin of 9 February 2009; accessed on 27 September 2010^ Serhan Yedig, “Bir var bir yok! Hem var hem yok JITEM” Hurriyet, 21 November 2005.^ Tokat Pasa: Suclular cezaland?r?ls?n, ordu y?prat?lmas?n, Zaman, 29 December 2004.^ KILIC, Ecevit (2009-01-26). “5 bin kisiyi olduren JITEM dag?t?lmad?” (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2009/01/26/haber,5513A29C7AE244A585461D159D448608.html. Retrieved 2010-05-23. “JITEM dag?t?lmad?. Sadece kadrolar? aktif degil. Eleman ag? aynen duruyor.” ^ For Article 5 of Law on the Establishment, Duties and Jurisdiction of Gendarmerie No. 2803, see Resmi Gazete (Official Gazette) No. 17985, dated 12 March 1983. “The Organisation of the General Command of Gendarmerie is stated in its own establishment and staff decrees in accordance with the nature of its duties and the principles of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Gendarmerie General Command’s establishment, staff and duty stations are regulated by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in consultation with the General Staff. During times of mobilization and war, squads under the command of military departments are organised with the approval of the General Staff. The organisation and mobilising of gendarmerie squads that are charged with security and public order duties are based on civilian divisions except in inevitable situations. To provide productivity and efficiency of service, organisations that cover more than one province are also considered.”^ For the Law Concerning Amendments to Some Laws No. 5397 see Resmi Gazete (Official Gazette) dated 23 July 2005 No. 25884.^ a b Cicek, Nevzat (2008-12-17). “JITEM tabelas? bile vard?” (in Turkish). Taraf. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber.asp?id=23635. Retrieved 2009-01-04. “Jandarma Genel Komutanl?g?-Istihbarat Baskanl?g?-Gruplar Komutanl?g?-Grup Komutanl?klar? (Bunlar yedi ayr? bolgede konumlanm?st?r)-Tim Komutanl?klar?-Birimler.” ^ a b Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-03). “Savc?lara hat?rlatma” (in Turkish). Gunluk Evrensel Gazetesi. http://www.evrensel.net/haber.php?haber_id=38203. Retrieved 2008-11-05. ^ S?k, Ahmet (2009-03-24). “F?rat’?n otesi: OHD, OKK, JITEM, Ergenekon…” (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. “JITEM’in orgutsel yap?s?n? tam olarak bilmek mumkun degil. Ama jandarma icinde merkezi Ankara’da, cogunlugu Guneydogu’da olmak uzere belli bolgeler de grup komutanl?klar? seklinde orgutlendigi, illerde jandarma alay komutanl?klar?n?n bunyesinde, emirleri dogrudan Ankara’daki merkezden alan, istihbarat, sorgu ve operasyon seklinde uclu faaliyet gosteren bir yap? oldugu anlas?l?yor.” ^ S?k, Ahmet (2009-03-24). “F?rat’?n otesi: OHD, OKK, JITEM, Ergenekon…” (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. “JITEM sozum ona PKK’ya kars? ‘gayri nizami harp’ faaliyetleri yurutmek uzere kuruldu, ama hicbir zaman dogrudan PKK’n?n k?rsaldaki silahl? gruplar?yla kars? kars?ya gelmedi.” ^ S?k, Ahmet (2009-03-24). “F?rat’?n otesi: OHD, OKK, JITEM, Ergenekon…” (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. “Orgut bolgede muhbirlerden yararlanarak PKK yanl?s? kisilerin oldurulmesi, gerilla k?l?g?yla koylere bask?n duzenlenmesi, kisilerin gozalt?na al?narak iskenceden gecirilmesi veya kaybedilmesi gibi eylemler gerceklestirdi.” ^ Duvakli, Melik (2009-01-03). “JITEM behind Anter and Ayd?n murders, claims Kurdish group”. Today’s Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=163093. Retrieved 2009-01-03. “He alleged that jailed PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan told the DTP through his lawyers not to become involved in discussions about Ergenekon.” ^ Kilic, Ecevit (2008-11-27). “Anter cinayetinde sadece JITEM degil PKK da var” (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2008/10/27/haber,875803E7D72F492BB243AE76F5830EDF.html. Retrieved 2009-01-04. “Birbirlerine kars?t olduklar?na bakmay?n, perdenin arkas?nda sarmas dolaslar.” ^ The names given in various publications are: Musa Anter, Vedat Ayd?n, Musa Toprak, Mehmet Sen, Talat Aky?ld?z, Zahit Turan, Necati Ayd?n, Ramazan Keskin, Mehmet Ay, Murat Aslan, Idris Y?ld?r?m, Servet Aslan, S?dd?k Yetmez, Edip Aksoy, Ahmet Ceylan, Sahabettin Latifeci, Abdulkadir Celikbilek, Mehmet Salih Donen, Ihsan Haran, Fethi Y?ld?r?m, Abdulkerim Zogurlu, Zana Zogurlu, Melle Izzettin, Hakk? Kaya, Harbi Arman, Fikri Ozgen, and Muhsin Gol. Of these, Murat Aslan’s remains were found in the place described by Aygan, and a forensic dental and ballistic tests confirmed the identity of the victim. Further details can be found in the 2005 annual report of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey.^ Sik, Ahmet (2005-02-03). “Ac? bir Susurluk oykusu” (in Turkish). Radikal. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=142287. Retrieved 2009-01-03. ^ Ekinci, Burhan (2005-02-02). “Iste Itiraf, Iste Ceset! Sorumlular Nerede?” (in Turkish). Bianet. http://wwww.bianet.org/bianet/kategori/insanhaklari/53545/iste-itiraf-iste-ceset-sorumlular-nerede. Retrieved 2009-01-03. ^ “‘A piece of bone could shed light on Silopi executions’”. Today’s Zaman. 2008-12-18. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=161589. Retrieved 2008-12-21. ^ Oktay, Mehmet (2008-12-20). “Family believes four members were executed with acid”. Today’s Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=161800. Retrieved 2008-12-22. ^ “Kacak Pasa’n?n korku imparatorlugu” (in Turkish). Bugun (Koza Ipek Gazetecilik ve Yay?nc?l?k A.S.). 2008-12-17. http://www.bugun.com.tr/haber_detay.asp?haberID=48497. Retrieved 2008-12-17. ^ Mehtap, Soyler (21 September 2009). “Der demokratische Reformprozess in der Turkei” (in German). Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Berlin) 39. http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/39-40/Beilage/001.html. Retrieved 24 May 2009. “Der turkische Menschenrechtsverein IHD schatzt, dass der JITEM zwischen 1989 und 2008 an etwa 5000 unaufgeklarten Morden an Journalisten, Menschenrechtlern, Intellektuellen und politischen Aktivisten beteiligt war und fur das Verschwinden von etwa 1500 Personen verantwortlich ist.”. ^ KILIC, Ecevit (2009-01-26). “5 bin kisiyi olduren JITEM dag?t?lmad?” (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2009/01/26/haber,5513A29C7AE244A585461D159D448608.html. Retrieved 2010-05-23. “Ibrahim Babat adl? itirafc? 61 kisiyi oldurmekle yarg?land?. * Faili mechul say?s? kac? Bu konuda net bir rakam soylemek mumkun degil. JITEM’in oldurdugu veya oldurdukten sonra kaybettigi kac kisi var? 4 binden fazla, 5 bin civar?nda.” ^ Tuna, Banu (2005-03-20). “4653 faili mechul belgeseli” (in Turkish). Hurriyet. http://webarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/2005/03/20/616517.asp. Retrieved 2010-05-24. “4653 rakam?na nas?l ulast?n?z? – Avrupa Insan Haklar? Mahkemesi’ne giden davalara bakt?k. Bolge barolar?n?n yapt?klar? cal?smalar? inceledik. Insan Haklar? Dernegi’nin merkez ve Diyarbak?r subelerinin cal?smalar?na bakt?k. Yak?nlar?n? Kaybedenler Dernegi’nin istatistiklerinden de yola c?karak bu rakama ulast?k.” ^ “JITEM Oldurdu” (in Turkish). ulkede ozgur gundem (Bianet). 2004-03-15. http://www.bianet.org/bianet/kategori/bianet/31067/jitem-oldurdu. Retrieved 2009-01-03. ^ Duvakli, Melik (2009-03-02). “Wife of slain Kurdish politician says husband killed by JITEM”. Today’s Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=203078. Retrieved 2010-05-24. “Sukran Ayd?n: a clandestine unit within the gendarmerie is responsible for the murder.” ^ “Vedat Ayd?n cinayeti raftan indi” (in Turkish). Taraf. 2009-05-06. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber/vedat-aydin-cinayeti-raftan-indi.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-24. “Diyarbak?r Ozel yetkili Cumhuriyet Bassavc?l?g?, aralar?nda Diyarbak?r JITEM eski Grup Komutan? Binbas? Aytekin Ozen’in de bulundugu alt?s? itirafc? dokuz JITEM eleman? hakk?nda yakalama emri c?kard?.” ^ a b c Duvakli, Melik, JITEM’s illegal actions cost Turkey a fortune, Today’s Zaman, 27 August 2008.^ Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case, Today’s Zaman, 13 August 2008.^ “Bir astsubay?n kaleminde JITEM gercegi” (in Turkish). ANF. 2008-08-29. http://www.firatnews.com/index.php?rupel=arsiv&anf=nuce2&nuceID=2051. Retrieved 2010-05-25. “1990’l? y?llarda Kurtlerin korkulu ruyas? haline gelen JITEM ekipleri infazlar?n yan?s?ra makam araclar?yla uyusturucu ticareti, silah kacakc?l?g? da yapt?g?na iliskin bir astsubay?n anlatt?klar? mahkemeye delil olarak sunuldu.” ^ S?k, Ahmet (2009-03-24). “F?rat’?n otesi: OHD, OKK, JITEM, Ergenekon…” (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. “1997 y?l?nda mudahil oldugum ve JITEM gorevlilerinin sucland?g? bir davada Idil Savc?s? Ilhan Cihaner’in fezlekesinde bunu ad? konmustur. Savc?n?n ciddi saptamalar? vard?r. Savc? fezlekesinde kamu gorevlileri, itirafc?lar ve baska baz? kisilerin de icinde oldugu ve adam oldurme, bombalama, gozalt?nda kaybetme gibi suclar? isleyen ulke genelinde orgutlu bir suc orgutu var diyor. Bu fezlekenin san?klar?n?n 1. s?ras?nda yer alan isim Ahmet Cem Ersever’dir ki JITEM’in kurucusu oldugunu herkes biliyor. Sonra 2. s?radaki san?k, simdi Ergenekon sorusturmas?n?n tutuklular? aras?nda yer alan ve yine JITEM’in kurucular?ndan olan Arif Dogan’d?r.” ^ Detailed background can be found in http://www.gundem-online.net/haber.asp?haberid=96101 gundemonline of 3 September 2010; accessed on 27 September 2010^ Compare the daily Zaman of 12 May 2010, quoted in the daily reports of the Democratic Turkey Forum; accessed on 27 September 2010^ Jugdments of the ECtHR can be found at http://www.echr.coe.int/ECHR/EN/hudoc. You can search by the Application no. 25657/94 or CASE OF AVSAR v. TURKEY^ “PKK itirafc?s? Toka’ya tahliye” (in Turkish). Radikal. 2006-01-20. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=176217&tarih=20/01/2006. Retrieved 2008-07-25. “Kutlu Savas’?n Susurluk Raporu’nda ad? gecen ve JITEM ad?na cok say?da faili mechul cinayete kar?st?g? one surulen PKK itirafc?s? Hayrettin Toka, 10 y?l sonra Karamursel’de yakaland?. Diyarbak?r’a getirilen Hayrettin Toka, ifade verdikten sonra serbest b?rak?ld?.” ^ See the article in the daily Hurriyet of 11 September 2009; accessed on 27 September 2010^ Details on hearings in this case can be found in the daily reports of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, backed up by the Democratic Turkey Forum; the relevant dates are: 03-05.04.2010, 08-10.05.2010, 05-07.06.2010, 15.06.2010, 10-12.07.2010 and 07-09.08.2010
Two series of articles in pro-Kurdish newspapers:JITEMciler konusuyor: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (Turkish)JITEM’i desifre ediyoruz: 1, 2, 3, 4. (Turkish)